"A key reason is the absence of coordination among the many public organisations undertaking various civic and infrastructure-related functions in the city and metropolitan region... The second is a lack of an adaptive and flexible planning process in response to the economic forces that drive demand for land and land use. Planning authorities typically prepare land use plans for a 20-year horizon and in the interim, any upgrading of transport infrastructure and new projects is undertaken in an ad hoc fashion by the respective organisations... Studies on metropolitan governance in India have recommended creating metropolitan councils entrusted with specific powers that are appointed democratically. Then there are other successful instances of transport planning and other functions being managed at the metropolitan level for regions such as London and New York that could be useful case studies. In reforming the governance system, the existing political incentives of public officials will have to be considered and necessary checks and accountability mechanisms put in place."
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