Articulating the impact of ideology on how cities develop he writes, "The fact is that every city is a living embodiment of some philosophy. What is now called Old Delhi, for instance, was a reflection of the hierarchical feudal order prevailing in the 17th century when Emperor Shah Jahan built it....When the British decided to build New Delhi a century ago, they conceived of it as a city of grand imperial parades and a racially coded hierarchy." Sanyal advocates that, "The first step is to stop thinking of the city as a machine and start thinking of it as an evolving ecosystem. Thus, success is about flexibility and managing change rather than implementing brilliant master-plans." Citing the example of Singapore, Sanyal writes, "the city-state is really a great example of flexibility and constant tinkering...Every 15 years or so, Singapore completely re-evaluates its overall economic and urban strategy...It’s all about new ideas, tinkering, feedback loops and managing transitions."
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